and projects like UPS systems, 12V lights etc to indicate the over discharge of the 12V battery because an over discharge reduces the capacity and life of the rechargeable battery.

The heart of the circuit is a 555 timer IC that is working in comparator mode in the circuit. The voltage level on which you want to activate the LED can be set with the 10K variable resistor. After building the circuit you have to adjust it for the first time. For doing that take a power supply and set its output voltage to 12V. Now connect it in the circuit in the place of 12V battery and slightly adjust the 10K variable resistor until the LED become switch off. That's it. Now connect your 12V battery with the circuit and start monitoring your battery.

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The figure below shows a very simple and useful project of a low voltage indicator for 12V batteries using a 555 timer IC. The circuit will indicate by activating an LED when the voltage of your 12V rechargeable battery falls below the preset level. The circuit can be used with many electronic devices
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555 Low Battery Indicator For 12V Batteries